Liu Group Publications:

Professor Liu's CV including full bibliography of group publications (pdf)

1. The Generality of DNA-Templated Synthesis as a Basis for Evolving Non-Natural Small Molecules.
Gartner, Z. J. and Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 6961-6963 (2001). PDF (252 KB) | Supplemental info A Highlight describing this work appears in Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41, 89-90 (2002). PDF (80 KB) This work reports the generality of DNA-templated synthesis, its distance independence, and a model translation of multiple DNA sequences into corresponding synthetic products in a manner suitable for in vitro selection and PCR amplification of templates encoding desired synthetic molecules.

2. An In Vivo Selection System for Homing Endonuclease Activity.
Gruen, M.; Chang, K.; Serbanescu, I.; Liu, D. R. Nucleic Acids Research 30, e29 (2002). PDF (328 KB) This paper describes a selection system that is the basis of ongoing efforts to evolve and understand homing endonucleases with novel substrate specificities.

3. Recent Advances in the In Vitro Evolution of Nucleic Acids.
Bittker, J. A.; Phillips, K. J.; Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol., 6, 367-374 (2002). PDF (176 KB)

4. Expanding the Reaction Scope of DNA-Templated Synthesis.
Gartner, Z, J.; Kanan, M. W.; Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 41, 1796-1800 (2002). PDF (136 KB) This work is featured in an online Nature Science Update (PDF, 156 KB). This paper reveals the potential of DNA to direct a wide range of synthetic organic reactions by reporting many new DNA-templated chemistries, including the first general carbon-carbon bond forming reactions (nitro-aldol, nitro-Michael, dipolar cycloadditions, Wittig olefinations, and Pd-mediated cross-couplings) templated by nucleic acids.

5. Nucleic Acid Evolution and Minimization by Nonhomologous Random Recombination.
Bittker, J. A.; Le, B. V.; Liu, D. R. Nature Biotechnology 20, 1024-1029 (2002). PDF (3 MB) This work describes a new method (NRR) for the diversification of nucleic acids that allows random recombination to take place between multiple unrelated DNA sequences, and demonstrates that NRR enables nucleic acid evolution, functional dissection, and minimization in ways not possible using existing diversification methods.

6. Multistep Small-Molecule Synthesis Programmed by DNA Templates.
Gartner, Z. J.; Kanan, M. W.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 124, 10304-10306 (2002). PDF (272 KB) | Supplemental info News stories describing this work appear in Chem. & Eng. News 80 [34] 12 (2002) PDF (1.9 MB), and in Science, 300, 242 (2003). This paper describes the development of linker and purification strategies that enable the products of DNA-templated reactions to serve as starting materials for subsequent DNA-templated transformations. These findings enable DNA sequences to be translated into structures of useful complexity.

7. Directing Otherwise Incompatible Reactions in a Single Solution Using DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis.
Calderone, C. T.; Puckett, J. W.; Gartner, Z. J.; Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41, 4104-4108 (2002). PDF (248 KB) This work is featured as an Editor's Choice in Science 298 [5598], 1517 (2002). This paper describes a new mode of controlling reactivity in a DNA-templated format that is not possible using conventional synthesis approaches.

8. Two Enabling Architectures for DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis.
Gartner, Z. J.; Grubina, R.; Calderone, C. T.; Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 1370-1375 (2003). PDF (244 KB) A Science and Technology Concentrate describing this work appears in Chem. & Eng. News 81 [13] 24 (2003). PDF (3.4 MB) This paper reports the development of two template architectures (omega and T) that expand the types of reactions that can be performed in a DNA-templated format.

9. In Vivo Evolution of an RNA Transcriptional Activator.
Buskirk, A. R.; Kehayova, P. D.; Landrigan, A.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 10, 533-540 (2003). PDF (412 KB) This paper is noted as an article of interest in Cell 113 (7) and is previewed in a separate article in Chem. Biol. 10, 584-585 (2003). This work describes the evolution from random RNA libraries expressed in yeast cells of a short RNA sequence that strongly activates gene transcription. The potency of this RNA rivals that of the most active known natural transcriptional activators (all of which are proteins). Its function was dissected using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, additional evolution, and secondary structure prediction.

10. Stereoselectivity in DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis and Its Origins.
Li, X. and Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 10188-10189 (2003). PDF (84 KB) | Supplemental info This paper reports the ability of DNA templates to induce stereoselectivity in DNA-templated reactions and traces the origins of this stereoselectivity to the macromolecular conformation of the DNA templates. These findings reveal the conditions under which DNA templates can perturb reaction outcomes beyond simple modulation of effective molarity.

11. Highly Sensitive In Vitro Selections for DNA-Linked Synthetic Small Molecules with Protein Binding Affinity and Specificity.
Doyon, J. B.; Snyder, T. M.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12372-12373 (2003). PDF (100 KB) | Supplemental info This work describes the development of affinity and specificity selections for DNA-linked synthetic molecules such as those emerging from DNA-templated small molecule library synthesis.

12. Efficient and Sequence-Specific DNA-Templated Polymerization of PNA Aldehydes.
Rosenbaum, D. M. and Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 13924-13925 (2003). PDF (96 KB) | Supplemental info This work reports the first efficient and sequence-specific translation of DNA templates into synthetic polymers of length similar to functional proteins. This work is highlighted in a Science and Technology story in Chem. & Eng. News 82 [3] 64 (2004). PDF (2.8 MB)

13. Expanding the Genetic Code In Vitro and In Vivo.
Magliery, T. J.; Liu, D. R. The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life Ed. Ribas de Pouplana, L. Landes Bioscience and Springer, (2004).

14. Translation of DNA into Synthetic N-Acyloxazolidines.
Li, X.; Gartner, Z. J.; Tse, B. N.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 5090-5092 (2004). PDF (204 KB) | Supplemental info Multistep DNA-templated synthesis was used to generate N-acyloxazolidines and macrocyclic N-acyloxazolidines. These structures represent the most complex synthetic small molecules to date translated from DNA.

15. Directed Evolution of Protein Enzymes Using Nonhomologous Random Recombination.
Bittker, J. A.; Le, B. V.; Liu, J. M.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 7011-7016 (2004). PDF (596 KB) The development and use of protein nonhomologous random recombination (protein NRR) to evolve active chorismate mutase protein enzymes with rearranged secondary structures are described in this work.

16. DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis: Nature's Strategy for Controlling Chemical Reactivity Applied to Synthetic Molecules.
Li, X.; Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 4848-4870 (2004). PDF (1.2 MB) This article reviews the growth of DNA-templated synthesis from its origins as a model system for self-replication to its recent development into a general way to control the reactivity of synthetic molecules using effective molarity.

17. Directed Evolution of Ligand Dependence: Small Molecule-Dependent Protein Splicing.
Buskirk, A. R.; Ong, Y.-C.; Gartner, Z. J.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 10505-10510 (2004). PDF (516 KB) The laboratory evolution of an intein that undergoes splicing only in the presence of a cell-permeable synthetic small molecule is described in this work. The evolved intein was used in living cells to render the function of four unrelated proteins dependent on the small molecule in a post-translational and dose-dependent manner.

18. DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis and Selection of a Library of Macrocycles.
Gartner, Z. J.; Tse, B. N.; Grubina, R.; Doyon, J. B.; Snyder, T. M.; Liu, D. R. Science 305, 1601-1605 (2004). PDF (512 KB) | Supplemental info This work is featured as a Research Highlight in Nature Biotechnology 22, 1247 (2004). This paper describes the translation of a single-solution library of DNA templates into a library of corresponding synthetic small-molecule macrocycles, the in vitro selection of a single member of the DNA-templated library for its protein binding activity, and the amplification by PCR of the DNA encoding the active macrocycle.

19. Engineering a Ligand-Dependent RNA Transcriptional Activator.
Buskirk, A. R.; Landrigan, A.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 11, 1157-1163 (2004). PDF (284 KB) This work is featured in a Research Highlight in Nature Methods 1, 6-7 (2004). PDF (200 KB) This paper reports the use of RNA engineering and directed evolution methods to create an RNA-based transcriptional activator that is regulated by a cell-permeable synthetic small molecule.

20. Reaction Discovery Enabled by DNA-Templated Synthesis and In Vitro Selection.
Kanan, M. W.; Rozenman, M. M.; Sakurai, K.; Snyder, T. M., Liu, D. R. Nature 431, 545-549 (2004). PDF (524 KB) | Supplemental info This work is featured in a news focus article in Science 305, 1558 (2004) PDF (552 KB), as a Science and Technology Concentrate in Chem & Eng. News 82 [40] 31 (2004) PDF (2.4 MB) , and as a News and Views commentary in Nature Biotechnology 22, 1378-1379(2004) PDF (124 KB). Here we report a new approach to reaction discovery that simultaneously evaluates many combinations of substrates in a single solution for bond-forming reactivity. Using this approach, we discovered an efficient and mild alkyne-alkene coupling reaction catalyzed by an inorganic Pd(II) salt that generates a trans-enone.

21. Nucleic Acid-Templated Synthesis as a Model System for Ancient Translation.
Calderone, C. T. and Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 8, 645-653 (2004). PDF (320KB)

22. Creating Small Molecule-Dependent Switches to Modulate Biological Functions.
Buskirk, A. R. and Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 12 , 151-161 (2005). PDF (356KB)

23. In Vitro Characterization of IroB, a Pathogen-Associated C-Glycosyltransferase.
Fischbach, M. A.; Lin, H.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 571-576 (2004). PDF (440 KB)

24. DNA-Templated Functional Group Transformations Enable Sequence-Programmed Synthesis Using Small-Molecule Reagents.
Sakurai, K.; Snyder, T. M.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 1660-1661 (2005). PDF (80 KB) | Supplemental info

25. Functional Dissection of sRNA Translational Regulators Using Nonhomologous Random Recombination and In Vivo Selection.
Liu, J.M.; Bittker, J.A.; Lonshteyn, M.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 12 , 757-767 (2005). PDF (584 KB) | Supplemental info

26. In Vitro Characterization of Salmochelin and Enterobactin Trilactone Hydrolases IroD, IroE, and Fes.
Lin, H.; Fischbach, M. A.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. J. Am. Chem Soc. 127, 11075-11084 (2005). PDF (4.2 MB)

27. Ordered Multistep Synthesis in a Single Solution Directed by DNA Templates.
Snyder, T. M. and Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 7379-7382 (2005). PDF (576 KB) | Supplemental info

28. Small-Molecule Diversification From Iterated Branching Reaction Pathways Enabled by DNA-Templated Synthesis.
Calderone, C. T. and Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 7383-7386 (2005). PDF (488 KB) | Supplemental info

29. DNA-Templated Synthesis in Organic Solvents.
Rozenman, M. and Liu, D. R. ChemBioChem 7, 253-256 (2006). PDF (300 KB)

30. Directed Evolution and Substrate Specificity Profile of Homing Endonuclease I-SceI.
Doyon, J. B.; Pattanayak, V.; Meyer, C. B; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2477-2484 (2006). PDF (228 KB) | Supplemental info

31. How Pathogenic Bacteria Evade Mammalian Sabotage in the Battle for Iron.
Fischbach, M. A.; Lin, H.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. Nature Chemical Biology 2, 132-138 (2006). PDF (378 KB)

32. Enzymatic Tailoring of the Bacterial Siderophore Enterobactin Alters Membrane Partitioning and Iron Acquistion.
Luo, M.; Lin, H.; Fischbach, M. A.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T.; Groves, J. T. ACS Chemical Biology 1, 29-32 (2006). PDF (892 KB)

33. A Protein Interaction Surface in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis Mapped by Combinatorial Mutagenesis and Selection.
Lai, J. R., Fischbach, M. A., Liu, D. R., Walsh, C. T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103 , 5314-5319 (2006). PDF (1.2 MB)

34. Control of Transcription Factor Activity and Osteoblast Differentiation in Mammalian Cells Using an Evolved Small-Molecule-Dependent Intein.
Yuen, C. M.; Rodda, S. J.; Vokes, S. A.; McMahon, A. P.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8939-8946 (2006). PDF (1.5 MB). This work is featured as a Spotlight in ACS Chemical Biology 1, 328 (2006), and as a News and Views article in Nature 442, 517-518 (2006).

35. Bromoenterobactins as Potent Inhibitors of a Pathogen-Associated, Siderophore-Modifying C-Glycosyltransferase.
Lin, H.; Fischbach, M. A.; Gatto Jr., G. J.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 9324-9325 (2006). PDF (124 KB)

36. Localized Protein Interaction Surfaces on the EntB Carrier Protein Revealed by Combinatorial Mutagenesis and Selection.
Lai, J. R.; Fischbach, M. A.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11002-11003 (2006). PDF (144 KB)

37. Binding and Stability Determinants of the PPARγ Nuclear Receptor/Coactivator Interface as Revealed by Shotgun Alanine Scanning and In Vivo Selection.
Phillips, K. J.; Rosenbaum, D. M.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11298-11306 (2006). PDF (852 KB)

38. The Pathogen-Associated iroA Gene Cluster Mediates Bacterial Evasion of Lipocalin 2.
Fischbach, M. A.; Lin, H.; Zhou, L.; Yu, Y.; Abergel, R. J.; Liu, D. R.; Raymond, K. N.; Wanner, B. L.; Strong, R. K.; Walsh, C. T.; Aderem, A.; Smith, K. D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 16502-16507 (2006). PDF (1.6 MB)

39. In Vivo Evolution of an RNA-Based Transcriptional Silencing Domain in S. cerevisiae.
Kehayova, P. D.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 14, 65-74 (2007). PDF (1.4 MB) This work is featured in a Research Highlight in Nature Methods 4, 297 (2007). PDF (1.4 MB)

40. Synthesis of Acyclic α,β-Unsaturated Ketones via Pd(II)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Reaction of Alkynamides and Alkenes.
Momiyama, N.; Kanan, M. W.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 2230-2231 (2007). PDF (104 KB) | Supplemental info

41. Solving Chemical Problems through the Application of Evolutionary Principles.
Rozenman, M. M.; McNaughton, B. R.; Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol., 11, 259-268 (2007). PDF (1.8 MB)

42. Directed Evolution Can Rapidly Improve the Activity of Chimeric Assembly-Line Enzymes.
Fischbach, M. A.; Lai, J. R.; Roche, E. D.; Walsh, C. T.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 11951-11956 (2007). PDF (988 KB)

43. Supercharging Proteins Can Impart Extraordinary Resilience.
Lawrence, M. S.; Phillips, K. J.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 2230-2231 (2007). PDF (2.7 MB) | Supplemental info . This work is featured in a Research Highlight in Nature 448 973 (2007) PDF (392 KB) and as a News and Views article in Nature 449, 555 (2007). PDF (176 KB)

44. Identification of Eukaryotic Promoter Regulatory Elements Using Nonhomologous Random Recombination.
Doyon, J. B.; Liu, D. R. Nucleic Acids Res. 35, 5851-5860 (2007). PDF (2.7MB)

45. Discovery of a mRNA Mitochondrial Localization Element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Nonhomologous Random Recombination and In Vivo Selection.
Liu, J. M.; Liu, D. R. Nucleic Acids Res. 35, 6750-6761 (2007). PDF (6MB)

46. Dissecting Protein Structure and Function using Directed Evolution.
Yuen, C.M.; Liu, D.R. Nature Methods 4, 995-997 (2007). PDF (160kb)

47. Development and Initial Application of a Hybridization-Independent, DNA-Encoded Reaction Discovery System Compatible with Organic Solvents.
Rozenman, M. M.; Kanan, M. W.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 14933-14938 (2007). PDF (384kb) | Supplemental info

48. Effects of Template Sequence and Secondary Structure on DNA-Templated Reactivity.
Snyder, T.M.; Tse, B.N.; Liu, D.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1392-1401 (2008). PDF (340kb) | Supplemental info

49. DNA-Templated Polymerization of Side-Chain-Functionalized Peptide Nucleic Acid Aldehydes.
Kleiner, R. E.; Brudno, Y.; Birnbaum, M. E.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 4646-4659 (2008). PDF (560kb) | Supplemental info

50. Translation of DNA into a Library of 13,000 Synthetic Small-Molecule Macrocycles Suitable for In Vitro Selection.
Tse, B. N.; Snyder, T. M.; Shen, Y.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15611-15626 (2008). PDF (4.2MB) | Supplemental info

51. Mammalian Cell Penetration, siRNA Transfection, and DNA Transfection by Supercharged Proteins
McNaughton, B. R.; Cronican, J. J.; Thompson, D. B.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 6111-6116 (2009) PDF (1.1 MB) | Supplemental Info | Supplemental Protocol. This work was featured as a Research Highlight in Nature Methods 6, 322 (2009)

52. Recent Progress Towards the Templated Synthesis and Directed Evolution of Sequence-Defined Synthetic Polymers.
Brudno, Y.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol 16, 265-276 (2009). PDF (832 kB)

53. A Chemical Screen for Biological Small Molecule-RNA Conjugates Reveals CoA-Linked RNA.
Kowtoniuk, W. E.; Shen, Y.; Heemstra, J. M.; Agarwal, I.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 7768-7773 (2009). PDF (856kB) | Supplemental Info This work was featured in a news story in Chemistry World (PDF, 88 kB) (April 20, 2009), in a news story in Chem. & Eng. News 87[17] 9 (2009) PDF (3.2 MB), and in a Research Highlight in Nature Chemical Biology 5, 380-381 (2009) PDF (192 kB) .

54. Conversion of 5-Methylcytosine to 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Mammalian DNA by the MLL Fusion Partner, TET1.
Tahiliani, M.; Koh, K. P.; Shen, Y.; Pastor, W. A.; Bandukwala, H.; Brudno, Y.; Agarwal, S.; Iyer, L. M.; Liu, D. R.; Aravind, L.; Rao, A. Science 324, 930-935 (2009). PDF (2.0MB) | Supplemental Info (1.3MB). This work was featured in a Spotlight in ACS Chemical Biology 4, 315 (2009) PDF(202kB) and in a Research Highlight in Nature 458, 1080 (2009) PDF (207kB).

55. Reactivity-Dependent PCR: Direct, Solution-Phase In Vitro Selection for Bond Formation.
Gorin, D. J.; Kamlet, A. S.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 9189-9191 (2009) PDF (2.9 MB) | Supplemental Info (1.1MB). This work was featured in a news story in Chemistry World (June 18, 2009)

56. Templated Synthesis of Peptide Nucleic Acids via Sequence-Selective Base-Filling Reactions
Heemstra, J. M.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc 131, 11347-11349 (2009) PDF (532kB)

57. LC/MS Analysis of Cellular RNA Reveals NAD-Linked RNA
Chen, Y. G.; Kowtoniuk, W. E.; Agarwal, I.; Shen, Y.; Liu, D. R. Nature Chemical Biology 5, 879-881 (2009) PDF (255 kB) | Supplemental Information (6.6 MB)

58. Photoswitching Mechanism of Cyanine Dyes
Dempsey, G. T.; Bates, M.; Kowtoniuk, W. E.; Liu, D. R.; Tsien, R. Y.; Zhuang, X. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 18192-18193 (2009) PDF . This work was featured in a Science and Technology Concentrate in C&E News 87 [50], 34 (2009) PDF

59. A Small Molecule Inhyibitor of TGF-? Signaling Replaces Sox2 in Reprogramming by Inducing Nanog
Ichida, J. K.; Blanchard, J.; Lam, K.; Son, E. Y.; Chung, J. E.; Egli, D.; Loh, K. M.; Carter, A. C.; Gi Giorgio, F. P.; Koszka, K.; Huangfu, D.; Akutsu, H.; Liu, D. R.; Rubin, L. L.; Eggan, K. Cell Stem Cell 5, 491-503 (2009) PDF

60. An In Vitro Translation, Selection and Amplification System for Peptide Nucleic Acid
Brudno, Y.; Birnbaum, M. E.; Kleiner, R. E.; Liu, D. R. Nature Chemical Biology 6, 148-155 (2010) PDF | Supplemental Information. This work was featured in a News and Views article in Nature Chemical Biology 6, 87-88 (2010) PDF, and was also featured in an article highlighting Nature Chemical Biology papers over the five-year history of the journal in Nature Chemical Biology 6, 387-389 (2010) PDF.

61. The Behavior of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Bisulfite Sequencing
Huang, Y.; Pastor, W.A.; Shen, Y.; Tahiliani, M.; Liu, D.R.; Rao, A. PLoS ONE 5, e8888 (2010) PDF

62. Enhanced Functional Potential of Nucleic Acid Aptamer Libraries Patterned to Increase Secondary Structures
Ruff, K. M., Snyder, T. M., Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 9453-9464 (2010). PDF | Supplemental Info

63. Functional Protein Delivery into Mammalian Cells by Supercharged Green Fluorescent Protein
Cronican, J. J.; Thompson, D. B.; Beier, K.T.; McNaughton, B. R.; Cepko, C.L.; Liu, D. R. ACS Chemical Biology 5, 747-752 (2010).PDF

64. In Vitro Selection of a DNA-Templated Small-Molecule Library Reveals a Class of Macrocyclic Kinase Inhibitors
Kleiner, R. E.; Dumelin, C.; Tiu, G.; Sakurai, K.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11779-11791 (2010).PDF

65. Autonomous Multistep Organic Synthesis in a Single Isothermal Solution Mediated by a DNA Walker
He, Y. and Liu, D. R. Nature Nanotechnology 5, 778-782 (2010). PDF | Supplemental Information. This work was featured in a news story in Chemistry World (October 10, 2010) PDF in a News and Views article in Nature Nanotechnology 5, 760-761 (2010) PDF, and in a Research Highlight in Nature Methods 7, 952 (2010) PDF.

66. Interaction-Dependent PCR Identified Target-Ligand Pairs from Libraries of Targets and Ligands
McGregor, L.M.; Gorin, D.J.; Dumelin, C.E.; Liu, D.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15522-15524 (2010).PDF | Supplemental Information

67. Molecules of Life: A General Education Approach to the Science of Living Systems
Tse, B.N.; Clardy, J.; Liu, D.R. in Science and the Educated American: A Core Component of Liberal Education, Meinwald, J. and Hildebrand, J.G. (Eds) Washington, DC: American Academy of Arts and Science pp 180-217 (2010)

68. A Biomolecule-Compatible Visible Light-Induced Azide Reduction from a DNA-Encoded Reaction Discovery System
Chen, Y.; Kamlet, A.S.; Steinman, J.B.; Liu, D.R. Nature Chemistry 3, 146-153 (2011).PDF | Supplemental Information

69. A De novo Protein binding Pair by Computational Design and Directed Evolution
Karanicolas, J.; Corn, J.E.; Chen, I.; Joachimiak, L.A.; Dym, O.; Peck, S.; Albeck, S.; Unger, T.; Hu, W.; Liu, G.; Delbecq, S.; Monelione, G.; Spiegel, C.; Liu, D.R.; Baker, D. Mol. Cell 42 (2), 250-260 (2011). PDF

70. A System for the Continuous Directed Evolution of Biomolecules
Esvelt, K.M.; Carlson, J.C.; Liu, D.R. Nature 472, 499-503 (2011). This work was featured in a news story in C&E News 89 (April 14, 2011), as a news story in the MIT Technology Review (April 18, 2011), in a News and Views article in Nature Chemical Biology 7, 252-253 (2011), in a feature article in BioTechniques, as a research highlight in Nature Methods, as a news story in SciBX 4, 5 (2011), and as a news story in Ars Technica (May 15, 2011). PDF, Supp

71. Directed Evolution of a Small Molecule-Triggered Intein with Improved Splicing Properties in Mammalian Cells"
Peck, S.; Chen, I.; Liu, D.R. Chem. Biol. 18 (5), 619-630 (2011). PDF

72. Inhibition of Bacterial Conjugation by Phage M13 and Its Protein g3p: Quantitative Analysis and Model
Lin, A; Jimenez, J.; Derr, J.; Vera, P.; Manapat, M.L.; Esvelt, K.M.; Villanueva, L.; Liu, D.R.; Chen, I. A. PLoS One 6 (5), e19991 (2011).PDF

73. Opposing Effects if Tcf3 abd Tcf1 Control Wnt-Stimulation of Embryonic Stem Cell Self Renewal
Yi, F.; Pereira, L.; Hoffman, J.A.; Shy, B.; Yuen, C.M.; Liu, D.R.; Merrill, B.J. Nature Cell Biology 13, 762-770 (2011).PDF

74. A Sequential Strand-Displacement Strategy Enables Efficient Six-Step DNA-Templated Synthesis
He, Y.; Liu, D.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 9972-9975 (2011). PDF

75. A Class of Human Proteins that Deliver Functional Proteins into Mammalian Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
Cronican, J.J.; Beier, K.T.; Davis, T.N.; Tseng, J.; Li, W.; Thompson, D.B.; Shih, A.F.; Cepko, C.L.; Kung, A.L.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, D.R. Chemistry & Biology 18, 833-838 (2011). This work was featured in SciBX 4 [31] (2011) [Bioworld].PDF

76. A General Strategy for the Evolution of Bond-Forming Enzymes Using Yeast Display
Chen, I.; Dorr, B.M.; Liu, D.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108 (28), 11399-11404 (2011).PDF. This work was highlighted in a technology feature in Nature Methods 8, 623 (2011).

77. Small-Molecule Discovery from DNA-Encoded Chemical Libraries
Kleiner, R.E.; Dumelin, C.E.; Liu, D.R. Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 5707-5717 (2011).PDF

78. Revealing Off-Target Cleavage Specificities of Zinc Finger Nucleases by In Vitro Selection
Pattanayak, V.; Ramirez, C.L.; Joung, J.K.; Liu, D.R. Nature Methods 8, 765-770 (2011).PDF. This work was featured in a news story in the August 7, 2011 issue of Nature, in a Highlight in Nature Genetics, in a news story in C&E News, 89 [33], 8 (2011), in a news story in the August 7, 2011 issue of The Scientist, in a News and Views article in Nature Methods 8, 725 (2011), and as a news story in the August 10, 2011 issue of BioWorld Today.

79. DNA-Enabled Self-Assembly of Plasmonic Nanoclusters
Fan, J.A.; He, Y.; Bao, K.; Wu, C.; Bao, J.; Schade, N.B.; Manoharan, V.N.; Shvets, G.; Nordlander, P.; Liu, D.R.; Capasso, F. Nano Lett. 11 (11), 4859-4864 (2011). PDF

80. Engineering, Identifying, and Applying Supercharged Proteins for Macromolecule Delivery into Mammalian Cells
Thompson, D.B.; Cronican, J.J.; Liu, D.R. Methods in Enzymology 503, 293-319 (2012).PDF, Perl Script

81. Highly Specific Bisubstrate-Competitive Src Inhibitors from DNA-Templated Macrocycles
Georghiou, G.; Kleiner, R.E.; Pulkoski-Gross, M.; Liu, D.R.; Seeliger, M.A. Nature Chemical Biology 8, 366-374 (2012). PDF

82. Cellular Uptake Mechanisms and Endosomal Trafficking of Supercharged Proteins
Thompson, D.B.; Villaseñor, R.; Dorr, B.M.; Zerial, M.; Liu, D.R. Chemistry & Biology 19 (7), 831-843 (2012).PDF

83. Discovery and Biological Characterization of Geranylated RNA in Bacteria
Dumelin, C.E.; Chen, Y.; Leconte, A.M.; Chen, Y.G.; Liu, D.R. Nature Chemical Biology 8 (11), 913-919 (2012).PDF. This work was featured in a Science and Technology Concentrate in C&E News and in Nature Reviews Microbiology 10, 731 (2012).

84. DNA Ligase-Mediated Translation of DNA Into Densely Functionalized Nucleic Acid Polymers
Hili, R.; Niu, J.; Liu, D.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc 135, 98-101 (2013). PDF. This work was featured in a Spotlight in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 1627 (2013).

85. A Population-Based Experimental Model for Protein Evolution: Effects of Mutation Rate and Selection Stringency on Evolutionary Outcomes
Leconte, A.M.; Dickinson, B.C.; Yang, D.D.; Chen, I.A.; Allen, B.; Liu, D.R. Biochemistry 52, 1490-1499 (2013). PDF

86. Enzyme-Free Translation of DNA into Sequence-Defined Synthetic Polymers Structurally Unrelated to Nucleic Acids
Niu, J.; Hili, R.; Liu, D.R. Nature Chemistry 5, 282-292 (2013). PDF. This work was featured in a News & Views article in Nature Chemistry 5, 252-253 (2013), in a Science and Technology Concentrate in C&E News 91 [9], 45 (2013), in a news story in Chemistry World (March 3, 2013), and in a News & Views article in Nature Biotechnology 31, 613 (2013)

87. Discovery of Widespread GTP-Binding Motifs in Genomic DNA and RNA
Curtis, E.A.; Liu, D.R. Chem Biol. 20, 521-532 (2013). PDF

88. Replaying the "Tape of Life": Experimental interrogation of the path dependence and stochasticity of protein evolution
Dickinson, B.C.; Leconte, A.M.; Allen, B.; Esvelt, K.M.; Liu, D.R. Proc. Natl. Avad. Sci. USA 110, 9007-9012 (2013).PDF

89. Sequence-Controlled Polymers
Lutz, J.-F.; Ouchi, M.; Liu, D.R.; Sawamoto, M. Science 341, 628 (1238149-1 to 1238149-8 online) (2013).PDF

90. Comprehensive Off-Target DNA Cleavage Profiling Reveals RNA-Programmed Cas9 Nuclease Specificity
Pattanayak, V.; Lin, S.; Guilinger, J.P.; Ma, E.; Doudna, J.A.; Liu, D.R. Nature Biotechnology 31, 839-843 (2013).PDF

91. In Silico Abstractions of Zing Finger Nuclease Cleavage Profiles Reveals an Expanded Landscape of Off-Target Mutations
Sander, J.; Ramirez, C.; Linder, S.; Pattanayak, V.; Shoresh, N.; Ku, M.; Foden, J.; Reyon, D.; Bernstein, B.; Liu, D.R.; Joung, J.K. Nucleic Acids Res. in press, available online (2013).PDF

92. Negative Selection And Stringency Modulation Enable Phage-Assisted Continuous Evolution (PACE) of Enzymes With Altered Specificity
Carlson, J.C.; Badran, A.H.; Nilo, D.A.; Liu, D.R. Nature Chemical Biology 10, 216-222 (2014).PDF

93. Immobilization of Actively Thromboresistant Assemblies on Sterile Blood-Contacting Surfaces
Qu, Z.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Haller, C.A.; Dorr, B.M.; Marzec, U.M.; Hurst, S.; Hinds, M.T.; Hanson, S.R.; Liu, D.R.; Chaikof, E.L. Adv. Healthcare Mat. 3, 30-35 (2014).PDF

94. Identification of Ligand-Target Pairs from Combined Libraries of Small Molecules and Unpurified Protein Targets in Cell Lysates
McGregor, L.M.; Jain, T.; Liu, D.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 3264-3270 (2014).PDF

95. Using DNA to Program Chemical Synthesis, Discover New Reactions, and Detect Ligand Binding
McGregor, L.M.; Liu, D.R. In A Handbook for DNA-Encoded Chemistry: Theory and Applications for Exploring Chemical Space and Drug Discovery. Goodnow, R.A., Ed.; Wiley: Hoboken pp. 377-415 (2014).

96. Fusion of Inactivated Cas9 to FokI Nuclease Improves Genome Modification Specificity
Guilinger, J.P.; Thompson, D.B.; Liu, D.R. Nature Biotechnology 32, 577-582 (2014).PDF, Supp

97. Anti-Diabetic Activity of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Inhibitors Mediated by Multiple Hormones
Maianti, J.P.; McFedries, A.; Foda, Z.H.; Kleiner, R.E.; Du, X.-Q.; Leissring, M.A.; Tang, W.-J.; Charron, M.J.; Seeliger, M.A.; Saghatelian, A.; Liu, D.R. Nature 511, 94-98(2014).PDF, Supp

98. A Naturally Occurring, Non-Canonical GTP Aptamer Made of Simple Tandem Repeats
Curtis, E.A. and Liu, D.R. RNA Biology 11:6 1-11 (2014).PDF

99. Broad Specificity Profiling of TALENs Results in Engineered Nucleases With Improved DNA Cleavage Specificity
Guilinger, J. P.; Pattanayak, V.; Reyon, D.; Tsai, S. Q.; Sander, J. D.; Joung, J. K.; Liu, D. R.Nature Methods 11, 429-435 (2014).PDF, Supp

100. A DNA-Based Molecular Probe for Optically Reporting Cellular Traction Forces
Blakely, B.L.; Dumelin, C.E.; Choi, C.K.; Anthony, P.C.; Nguyen, V.K.; Baker, B.M.; Block, S.M.; Liu, D.R.; Chen, C.S. Nature Methods 11, 1229-1232 (2014).PDF, Supp

101. Electrophilic activity-based RNA probes reveal a self-alkylating RNA for RNA labeling.
McDonald, R. I.; Guilinger, J.P.; Mukherji, S.; Curtis, E.A.; Lee, W. I.; Liu, D. R. Nature Chemical Biology 10, 1049-1054 (2014).PDF, Supp

102. A System For the Continuous Directed Evolution of Proteases Rapidly Reveals Drug-Resistance Mutations
Dickinson, B. C.; Packer, M. S.; Badran, A. H.; Liu, D. R. Nature Comm. 5, 5352 (2014).PDF, Supp

103. Reprogramming the Specificity of Sortase Enzymes
Dorr, B. M.; Ham, H. O.; An, C.; Chaikof, E. L.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 13343-13348 (2014).PDF, Supp

104. Determining the Specificities of TALENs, Cas9, and Other Genome Editing Enzymes
Pattanayak, V.; Guilinger, J. P.; Liu, D. R. Methods in Enzymology 546 47-78 (2014).PDF

105. In Vivo Continuous Directed Evolution
Badran, A. H.; Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 24, 1-10 (2014).PDF

106. Cationic Lipid-Mediated Delivery of Proteins Enables Efficient Protein-Based Genome Editing In Vitro and In Vivo
Zuris, J. A.; Thompson, D. B.; Shu, Y.; Guilinger, J. P.; Bessen, J. L.; Hu, J. H.; Maeder, M. L.; Joung, J. K.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Liu, D. R. Nature Biotechnology 33, 73-80 (2014).PDF, Supp

107. Determine the Specificities of TALENs, Cas9, and Other Genome-Editing Enzymes
Pattayanak, V.; Guilinger, J.P. ; Liu, D. R. Methods Enzymol. 546, 48-78 (2014).PDF, Supp

108. Targeted Antithrombotic Protein Micelles
Kim, W.; Haller, C; Dai, E.; Wang, X.; Hagemeyer, C. E.; Liu, D. R. ; Peter, K.; Chaikof, E. L. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 1461-1465 (2014).PDF

109. Novel Selection Methods for DNA-Encoded Chemical Libraries
Chan, A. I.; McGregor, L. M.; Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 26, 55-61 (2015).PDF

110. Continuous Directed Evolution of DNA-Binding Domains Generates TALENs With Improved DNA Cleavage Specificity
Hubbard, B. P.; Badran, A. H.; Zuris, J. A.; Guilinger, J. P.; Davis, K. M.; Tsai, S. Q.; Sander, J. D.; Joung, J. K.; Liu, D. R. Nature Methods 12, 939-942 (2015).PDF, Supp

111. Methods for the Directed Evolution of Proteins
Packer, M. S. and Liu, D. R. Nature Reviews Genetics 16 379-394 (2015).PDF

112. Development of Potent In Vivo Mutagenesis Plasmids with Broad Mutational Spectra
Badran, A. H.. and Liu, D. R. Nature Comm. 6 8425 (2015).PDF, Supp

113. Small Molecule-Triggered Cas9 Protein With Improved Genome-Editing Specificity
Davis, K. M.; Pattanayak, V.; Thompson, D. B.; Zuris, J. A.; Liu, D. R. Nature Chemical Biology 11,316-318 (2015).PDF, Supp

114. Discovery and Characterization of a Peptide That Enhances Endosomal Escape of Delivered Proteins In Vitro And In Vivo
Li, M.; Tao, Y.; Shu, Y.; LaRochelle, J. R. ; Thompson, D.; Schepartz, A.; Chen., Z.-Y.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. in press (2015).PDF

115. Analytical Devices Based on Direct Synthesis of DNA on Paper
Glavan, A. C.; Niu, J.; Chen, Z.; Guder, F.; Cheng, C.-M.; Liu, D. R.; Whitesides, G. M. Anal. Chem. 88, 725-731 (2015).PDF

116. Efficient Delivery of Genome-Editing Proteins using Bioreducible Lipid Nanoparticles
Wang, M.; Zuris, J. A.; Meng, F.; Rees, H.; Deng, P.; Gao, X.; Pouli, D.; Wu, Q.; Georgakoudi, I.; Liu, D. R.; Xu, Q. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113, 2868-2873 (2015).PDF

117. Structural and Biochemical Basis for Intracellular Kinase Inhibition by Src-specific Peptidic Macrocycles
Aleem, A.; Georghiou, G.; Kleiner, R.; Guja, K.; Garcia-Diaz, M.; Miller, W. T.; Liu, D. R.; Seeliger, M. A. 23, 1-10 (2016).PDF

118. Chemical Biology Approaches to Genome Editing: Understanding, Controlling, and Delivering Programmable Nucleases
Hu, J. H.; Davis, K. M.; Liu, D. R. Cell Chem. Biol. 23, 57-73 (2015).PDF

119. Continuous Evolution of B. thuringiensis Toxins Overcomes Bt Resistance in Insects
Badran, A. H.; Guzov, V. M.; Huai, Q.; Kemp, M. M.; Vishwanath, P.; Kain, W.; Evdokimov, A.; Moshiri, F.; Turner, K. H.; P.; Malvar, T.; Liu, D. R. Nature 533,58-63 (2016).PDF, Supp

120. In Situ Regeneration of Bioactive Coatings Enabled By An Evolved Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A
Qu, Z.; Dorr, B. M.; Dai, E.; Haller, C. A.; Kim, W.; Ham, H. O.; Liu, D. R.; Chaikof, E. L. Nature Comm. 7, 11140 (2016).PDF

121. Programmable Editing of a Target Base in Genomic DNA Without Double-Stranded DNA Cleavage
Komor, A. C.; Kim, Y. B.; Packer, M. S.; Zuris, J. A.; Liu, D. R. Nature 533, 420-424 (2016).PDF, Supp, Expanded Extended Data Figure 6

122. Sequence Determinants of Intracellular Phase Separation by Complex Coacervation of a Disordered Protein
Pak, C. W.; Kosno, M.; Holehouse, A. S.; Padrick, S. B.; Mittal, A.; Ali, R.; Yunus, A. A.; Liu, D. R.; Pappu, R. V.; Rosen, M. K. Mol. Cell 63, 72-85 (2016).PDF

123. A Programmable Cas9-Serine Recombinase Fusion Protein That Operates on DNA Sequences in Mammalian Cells
Chaikind, B.; Bessen, J. L.; Thompson, D. B.; Hu, J. H.; Liu, D. R. Nucl. Acids Res. in press (2016).PDF, Supp

124. CRISPR-Based Technologies for the Manipulation of Eukaryotic Genomes
Komor, A.; Badran, A. H.; Liu, D. R. Cell 168, 20-36 (2017).PDF

125. Structural and Biochemical Basis for Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Drug-Resistance Mutations by Src-Specific Macrocyclic Inhibitor
Aleem, A.; Georghiou, G.; Kleiner, R.; Guja, K.; GarciaDiaz, M.; Miller, W. T.; Liu, D. R.; Seeliger, M. A. Cell Chem. Biol. 23, 1103-1112 (2016).PDF

126. Increasing the Genome-Targeting Scope and Precision of Base Editing With Engineered Cas9-Cytidine Deaminase Fusions
Kim, Y. B.; Komor, A. C.; Levy, J. M.; Packer, M. S.; Zhao, K.T.; Liu, D. R.Nature Biotechnol. in35 371-376. PDF

127. Nucleic Acid-Templated Synthesis of Sequence-Defined Synthetic Polymers
Chen, Z. and Liu, D. R. in press, available online (2017)

128. Aptazyme-Embedded Guide RNAs Enable Ligand-Responsive Genome Editing and Transcriptional Activation
Tang, W.; Hu, J. H.; Liu, D. R Nature Com.. in press, available online PDF

129. Phage-Assisted Continuous Evolution of Proteases with Altered Substrate Specificity
Packer, M. S.; Rees, H. A.; Liu, D. R. Nature Communications 8, 956 (2017). PDF, Supp

130. Improved Base Excision Repair Inhibition and Bacteriophage Mu Gam Protein Yields C:G-to-T:A Base Editors With Higher Efficiency and Product Purity
Komor, A. C.; Zhao, K. T.; Packer, M. S.; Gaudelli, N. M.; Waterbury, A. L.; Koblan, L. W.; Kim, Y. B.; Badran, A. H., Liu, D. R. Science Advances in press, available online(2017). PDF

130. Evolution of Sequence-Defined Highly Functionalized Nucleic Acid Polymers
Chen, Z.; Lichtor, P. A.; Berliner, A. P.; Liu, D. R. submitted (2017).

131. Discovery of a Covalent Kinase Inhibitor from a DNA-Encoded Small-Molecule Library x Protein Library Selection
Chan, A. I.; McGregor, L. M.; Jain, R.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc in press (2017). PDF, Supp

132. Improving the DNA Specificity and Applicability of Base Editing Through Protein Engineering and Protein Delivery In Vitro and In Vivo
Rees, H. A.; Komor, A. C.; Yeh, W.-H.; Edge, A. S. B.; Liu, D. R. Nature Communications in press, available online PDF

133. Improved Base Excision Repair Inhibition and Bacteriophage Mu Gam Protein Yields C:G-to-T:A Base Editors With Higher Efficiency and Product Purity
Komor, A. C.; Zhao, K. T.; Packer, M. S.; Gaudelli, N. M.; Waterbury, A. L.; Koblan, L. W.; Kim, Y. B.; Badran, A. H., Liu, D. R. Science Advances in press, available online PDF

134. Development of a Formaldehyde Biosensor with Application to Synthetic Methylotrophy
Woolston, B. M.; Roth, T.; Kohale, I.; Liu, D. R.; Stephanopoulos, G. Biotechnol. Bioeng. in press, available online PDF

135. Editing the Genome Without Double-Stranded DNA Breaks
Komor, A. C.; Badran, A. H.; Liu, D. R. ACS Chem. Biol in press, available online PDF

136. Evolution of Sequence-Defined Highly Functionalized Nucleic Acid Polymers
Chen, Z.; Lichtor, P. A.; Berliner, A. P.; Liu, D. R. Nature Chem. in press, available online PDF, Nature Chem News and Views

137. Programmable Base Editing of A*T to G*C in Genomic DNA Without DNA Cleavage
Gaudelli, N. M.; Komor, A. C.; Rees, H. A.; Packer, M. S.; Badran, A. H.; Bryson, D. I.; Liu, D. R. Nature 551, 464-471 (2017). PDF, Supp

138. Continuous directed evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
Bryson, D. I.; Fan C.; Guo, L.-T.; Miller, C.; Söll, D.; Liu, D. R. Nature Chem. Biol. 13, 1253-1260 (2017). PDF

139. Treatment of Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss by In Vivo Delivery of Genome Editing Agents
Gao, X.; Lamas, V.; Huang, M.; Yeh, W.-H.; Pan, B.; Hu, Y.-J.; Hu, J. H.; Thompson, D. B.; Shu, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Xu, Q.; Polley, D. B.; Liberman, M. C.; Kong, W.-J.; Holt, J. R.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Liu, D. R. Nature 533, 217-221 (2018). PDF, Supp

140. Second-Generation DNA-Templated Macrocycle Libraries for the Discovery of Bioactive Small Molecules
Usanov, D. L.; Chan, A. I.; Maianti, J. P.; Liu, D. R. Nature Chem. in press (2018)

141. Rewriteable Multi-Event Analog Recording in Bacterial and Mammalian Cells
Tang, W.; Liu, D. R. Science in press, available online (2018). PDF

142. Evolved Cas9 Variants with Broad PAM Compatibility and High DNA Specificity
Hu, J. H.; Miller, S. M.; Geurts, M. H.; Tang, W.; Chen, L.; Sun, N.; Zeina, C.; Gao, X.; Rees. H. A.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D. R. Nature in press (2018). PDF, Supp

143. Ensemble CryoEM Elucidates the Mechanism of Insulin Capture and Degradation by Human Insulin Degrading Enzyme
Zhang, Z.; Liang, W. G.; Bailey, L. J.; Tan, Y. Z.; Wei, H.; Wang, A.; Farcasanu, M.; Woods, V. A.; McCord, L. A.; Lee, D.; Shang, W.; Deprez-Poulain, R.; Deprez, B.; Liu, D. R.; Koide, A.; Koide, S.; Kossiakoff, A. A.; Li, S.; Carragher, B.; Potter, C. S.; Tang, W.-J. eLife 7,e33572 (2018).

144. Second-Generation DNA-Templated Macrocycle Libraries for the Discovery of Bioactive Small Molecules
Usanov, D. L.; Chan, A. I.; Maianti, J. P.; Liu, D. R. Nature Chem in press, available online (2018).

145. In Vivo Base Editing of Post-Mitotic Sensory Cells
Yeh, W.-H.; Chiang, H.; Rees, H. A.; Edge, A. S.; Liu, D. R. Nature Commun. in press (2018).

146. Improving Cytidine and Adenine Base Editors by Expression Optimization and Ancestral Reconstruction
Koblan, L. W.; Doman, J. L.; Wilson, C.; Levy, J. M.; Tay, T.; Newby, G. A.; Maianti, J. P.; Raguram, A.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. in press, available online (2018). PDF, Supp

147. Continuous Directed Evolution of Proteins with Improved Soluble Expression
Wang, T.; Badran, A. H.; Huang, T. P.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. accepted for publication (2018).